Blacks at Monticello
I was outspoken
in my stance against slavery but I also owned slaves. What were my actual
feelings? Skip down to read information about my relationship with Sally Hemmings
I wanted to
free them all but there were several reasons that I could not. If I had then I would have been voted out of government by those who belived in slavery. That is all there was to it. You either had a Thomas Jefferson in the government who had slaves or no Thomas Jefferson. Many of the
forefathers had this in common. There is a greater more important reason though. Read on.
problem was that blacks had no laws to protect them once they were free.
As property they had the protection of the laws bearing on personal property.
As a result several that I gave their freedom were murdered. This included Sally Hemmings brother who was tortured to death.
In fact he is an excellent example of my feelings toward slavery. I had James Hemmings come to France and had him taught French cooking by some of the best chefs in France. It was very expensive schooling. Transportation from Europe was very expensive. A person usually committed to 11 years as an indentured servant to pay for their passage one way. So I had a huge investment in James. It was probably the equivalent of about a half million dollars today and after about five years he said he wanted to cook in a restaurant, so I gave him his freedom. In exchange my condition was that he simply had to train one of his relatives to cook. That he did and away he went.
I did not have a slavers attitude. Anyone who wanted their freedom could just leave and I would not send anyone after them. (This is well known.)
Then after he left it was only a few years before he was murdered.
sadly and truthfully stated by people 200 years ago that if a person shot
a black man and the bullet went through him and killed a black dog you could get the person convicted of killing the
black dog but not for killing the black man. In most counties laws protected
dogs of all colors and breeds but they didn't protect men of any color
or breed other than white.
free blacks had less rights than dogs. I mean that literally. In some
counties people would kill their neighbor's dog and then claim they didn't
know it was the neighbors. For that reason and many others they passed
laws in many counties against killing any dogs but not blacks.
took out their animosity on freed blacks. Blacks were not even protected
from other blacks.
The forefathers were not universally
loved by all Americans and many people wanted to harm us. The only way was often
to hurt or kill a freed slave that had belonged to the forefather. A freed black was usually a close friend
of the former owner so an enemy of the former owner would kill the ex
slave to hurt their former owner indirectly. That is why we could not free slaves and that was my main reason for not freeing them.
Next on the
list were those who would torture an ex slave to find out secrets of the
owner (and the English did this often) so none of the forefathers could
safely free their slaves for this reason either.
For the same reason the English were always
trying to buy slaves from the forefathers to torture them for secrets. So not
many belonging to the forefathers were sold except to known parties and
with a codicil forbidding the slaves resale.
So this issue was not as simple as you probably thought at first glance.
I'm in the process of updating this page now.
I had to appear to straddle both sides of the fence so that I did not lose
the support of the voters or there would never have been a United States.
Later it was
also for preserving a state of normalcy at Monticello since it was the second
seat (or emergency) Capital for the United States. Once you have read
Fortress Monticello you will understand that
the issue ran far deeper than a persons technical legal designation. If
the facade that Monticello was not just a plantation had ever gotten out then it would have been useless for this
purpose and the entire capital, Washington itself, might have had to have
been moved permanently farther inland for safety. Without the slaves Monticello
would not have existed and it would likely have been exposed. Again, had we released the slaves then they might have been tortured by the British for all sorts of information about the U.S. Government.
I did not want
slaves and didn't buy any that I can recall, unless they came to me asking to be bought. The slaves I had were either inherited
or otherwise been owned by my wife and were part of her inheritance.
Since I wrote
the Declaration of Independence there were many people that felt I was
responsible for their freedom and the problems that came with it like
having to think. Many people did not want to have to think. It might surprise
you but most people don't like to think and that was my fault. Many whites
messed up their lives on their own and they blamed me for that too.
So they would have
taken out their anger on any blacks that I had given freedom to. This
was actually true for the freed blacks that had belonged to any of the
other forefathers as well. There were at least three blacks that other forefathers
released that were murdered. The other forefathers had it worse since
they were not lawyers. People were really cautious about hurting my blacks
even the few free ones. I do think four of my freed blacks were
I also never made it public knowledge when I freed blacks for the same reason.
It was just
plain deadly dangerous for free blacks in the US until they got rights.
It's still fairly dangerous to be black.*
Those few blacks
that I freed never were really free as they lived their lives in fear
of misdirected retribution against their former owner, me. One was murdered
after I gave him freedom. Then I had to stop freeing them. (We had
a number of ways around it. There were ways to free slaves without actually freeing them directly. We did that with many of them. Scroll down
to 'Life for the blacks at
Monticello' to read about that .)
As slaves they
were considered property and had the protection of an owner that was also
a very astute lawyer who would not fail to prosecute to the fullest extent
of the law if any whites moved so much as one hair on one of the blacks.
Literally the word that got out to the whites was exactly that. Touch
their hair and it would cost them $10,000 by the time I got through with
them and that is about a half million in today's money.
In the majority
of Sahara area if a man touched another mans head it was a challenge to
a fight and to back down from this specific challenge was suicide for
those blacks. However a black man who struck a white person was usually
killed on the spot so they couldn't react. Any black man so touched on their
head by another man, who did not rise to the challenge, was usually castigated
and relegated to a lower social position by other blacks, especially from
that region of Africa. That would affect their actual value as property,
in dollars and cents and this lawyer would sue any white man who touched
their head, not only for his lost value to me but also for the loss of
the value of at least ten of his relatives since they all shared the same
shame and were relegated to a lower position in their society. So nobody
ever touched one of them.
The second lesser
reason I did not free my blacks was to prevent me from being seen as an opponent to slavery by
slave owners. I needed to make it appear that all my talk about eliminating
slavery was just talk.
I could never be seen as taking
a very strong stance against the issue of slavery to those members of
congress who were in favor of slavery. It being a southern state Virginia
citizens would never have put up with it if they thought I really was
strongly against slavery. The slave owners would ask my neighbors if I
was setting blacks free and they had a slavers coalition that bribed the
two men in the state government that worked in the Richmond records office
to find out which whites were freeing their own blacks and what they were
doing with them in general. They thought I was all BS.
Northerners who wanted to find
out my stance on the issue just read what I wrote.
However, if you were a slave and walked away then I never sent anyone after you and I would refuse to pay to have you returned. (This is in the history books.) In other words the Blacks of Monticello were free.
a free black lady that visited me at night when I was president.
I was at a banquet
in the capital and she was serving. She said 'Mister president, sir. Would
you mind sir if I called on you sometime soon sir?' I thought oh heck,
another person with a minor complaint and I replied 'certainly'. As I
moved along the table I heard the word 'late'. That meant it was not going
to be a complaint. The next night she arrived at eight in a long gown,
gloves and coat with a fur hood hiding her tan, and it was in July.
She was one
of the smartest woman I ever met and certainly a better acquaintance,
lover and friend than most women I had known. (I have to say honestly
that I think she She was one of the few women that I had gotten to know well enough to make
an honest appraisal of and she might have been smarter than everyone I knew and that includes Ben Franklin and a friend I knew
have mistaken her for Sally Hemmings (who I was never involved with and
I'll explain that in a bit) as they both had very similar figures. She
wanted a smart child.
She was an amazing
woman as well as intelligent. She would disguise herself using a white
paste to look like she was a white man. That was for many reasons. Sometimes
it was to enter taverns just for some intelligent conversation.
Other times it was to pretend to be a reporter to interview Congressmen
(she was an active reporter who published in newspapers far away from
the capital under a man's name. It was common for newspaper editors to
hire a reporter in the capital and never even meet them. She also did this
so she could use Government facilities like certain libraries and even
some where white women were not welcome. Usually she would try as a black
woman first and only resort to this disguise if there were complaints
by bigots. Certain federal
depositories and libraries were off limits to blacks and women but
it was not enforced that often.
This lady had
received an education in the best women's school in England and a women's
University almost the equal of Oxford. The reason she got admitted was
that the school had never dealt with the issue of race before. Her father
who was a wealthy shipping magnate scion from a French family in Boston
and also in Manhattan. He enrolled her ahead of time and sent all the appropriate
documents and then she shocked the s..t right out of them when she arrived
for the year. (She was three eighths black. The ladies of mixed blood
in England then were not called blacks but were often referred to as 'exotic ladies'
or 'exotic women' in the newspapers and even the official records of the
Then she got the highest grades
in the classes she took. She explained to me that at the age of 5-6 her
father hired a tutor that taught her how to think out the best ways to
learn. She explained that different situations required her to use different
methods. Children in England were just given books and told to learn the
Education was always a large
interest of mine so she explained eight of the methods (at least) that
she found that worked for her. Here are several that I can recall.
When the other students were
told to memorize some information or a technique they would just repeat
it over and over again for hours on end while she would put what she needed
to memorize on slips of paper. She would read them once or twice right
before she went to bed and then right when she awoke. It would get 100%
memorized that way and her peers would still be reading it over and over
for hours and for up to seven days.
She used two techniques for
learning music. If she had to learn a passage of difficult harp music
she would get the matron that checked the halls to wake her up at midnight.
She would learn it perfectly if she just played it once and then went
right back to sleep. She always received the best marks in her school.
She did this also with the harpsichord and once the instructor said he
never heard the song played better in his life.
She was as well versed as most
men and that included my ambassadors. She was as well educated and had
retained more of what she had learned in school than any woman that I
knew of in the US.
She would often come and stand
in as a server when I had racists dinner guests at the White House. It
was kept a secret for part of the dinner. Then at an opportune moment she would
set down her serving tray to educate those 'ignorant bigots' as she often
called these men and women who had managed to avoid conversing with any
educated blacks. They had to listen to every word and couldn't avoid her
as they were guests of the United States President.
Whenever an American spoke
proper English they were declared to be Tory's and ostracized but when
she spoke perfect and proper English of the upper class it had quite the
She knew the bards work inside
out and not just the words of Shakespeare.
She was serving tea after dinner
to two English women from Jamaica and she couldn't take it. They were
women of stature and were discussing the nature of Hamlet's schizophrenia
when my friend set down the tea tray and rebuked the commonly held assumption
that Hamlet was a schizophrenic. She deliberately and slowly delineated
how Hamlet's moods changed abruptly from scene to scene, going from highs
to lows. To absolutely everyone's delight she showed to the satisfaction
of them all that Hamlet actually suffered from what was then called 'Melancholia
and mania' but which is now called manic depression or Bipolar disorder.
(Even today the assumption is that Hamlet was schizophrenic and the arguments
are over that issue whereas the Bipolar connection is rarely even discussed.)
We worked as a team and when
it was a US politician it was an entirely different matter since I had
to stay neutral. So I would never contradict these people directly however
my friend had a mouth on her that would not stop. So I had a signal
for her to serve anything, such as sweets, to get her out of the back.
Then I'd ask her what her opinion was and when she set down her tray I'd
sit back and and laugh inside as the show unfolded.
One member of the House of
Representative had a bigoted stance that was based on just two beliefs.
One I can't recall yet. The other was his assumption that blacks were
of lesser intelligence. He was changed within an hour by talking with
her and he voted against slavery from then on.
She inherited more money than
the first three presidents had combined about four times over. There were
many incredibly rich people who lived in early America whose wealth was
not known. America was a lot like Switzerland is today. It was a haven
from all taxes (and that included income tax). Her father had maneuvered
his wealth like Joseph Kennedy had through the 1929 stock market crash
three times over and her family's wealth put their friends and fellow
fur traders, the Astors, to shame.
that were all in a row and the blacks at Monticello.
There was a row of shops at Monticello. These were probably
on the mountain top. They were private enterprises which were totally
owned and operated by the blacks. They kept all the money they made and
I don't think there were any taxes either because I hated taxes too (
I had a firm policy of never perpetrating on another what I didn't want
perpetrated on me. I think you probably learned a version of that in Bible
school.). I charged for the feed for the animals they raised. I charged
a rental for the land they had the shops on but they could work one and
a half days a month to pay for the rent. I don't think I charged them
anything else. I paid a lot more to them for goats milk, cheese, vegetables
they grew and chickens, etc.
They got off
work 3 hours before sunset on Friday so they could travel to a friend's home safely
and they could always borrow a horse or the women would take a buggy if they needed to go farther.
The one time
I took any money from the blacks was when two of the men wanted to make knives and I had
to go across the river to buy good steel blanks in a buggy and set up
an account for them so they could pick up more. That was only a loan which they
paid back in good time. They started making knives but they really found
that spears of all things sold the best.
almost exactly like this one I found a picture of at the dot com mentioned.
These were broad
pointed blades on a about a 4 foot wood shaft.
The guns at
the time fired only shot one bullet and there were a couple types of animals
that didn't like getting shot at so they sometimes would charge right
at the person and at least try to kill them. Sometime they succeeded.
Mostly these were large male boars. A few bears also got upset about
being shot at by hunters.
loved the African spears which were optimized to kill wild boars that were in a
rage. They were hardened steel and their blade width (about 3" wide)
always killed a pretty large animal within a couple of seconds. The boar hunters would
have the spear over their shoulder on a strap with the point above their
head. If a boar charged them after they shot their bullet they would drop
the gun, reach up and back past their ear, grab the spear, then bringing
it down and forward stabing the charging beast. Now that took only 3 seconds
and with another second you could hold it in front of you with both hands
and brace yourself. The animal would run into the spear and kill himself.
These men made excellent what later became known as
bowie knives and the balance was incredible. They were the best in Virginia
I never have
any relationship with any of the black women at Monticello. I would never
have disgraced myself by force of will or by the so called right of due ownership
on a person. In my mind it bespeaks of rape.
So I certainly never had any romantic
relationship with Sally Hemmings who was also my daughters best friend and
my wife's favorite. However, there were many relatives of mine in the area and I think there was even a black man later killed
in a fight with a relative of mine over Sally's affections.
Then there was the issue of Sally being my departed wife's half sister. It is well known that I made a promise of never marrying again after my wife died out of respect and love for her. If I had such respect that forswore marrying again then I certainly would not have betrayed that love and respect by sleeping with her half sister. That is a horrible thought for me to think of even today.
Doesn't anyone believe in ethics these days? What do think gained us our freedom from the British? It was at it basic truth our ethics that gain for us our freedom. And this is the freedom that you so enjoy and often misuse as well as misunderstand. Those freedoms were begotten by an ethical stance that Americans today often lack. I see those people on documentaries, the greedy and sleazy ones who would rape everyone they could get away with. These beligerants are the ones swearing that Thomas Jefferson must have slept with Sally Hemmings simply because their devious perversness would have driven them to it if they had been in my position. When those people say Thomas Jefferson must have slept with Sally Hemmings they are saying a lot more about themselves than they are about me. The nasty little perverts.
I'd tell you
if there had been any involvement as it seems to be a big issue that I
would to see resolved. It
was her greatness that made the whites so upset that they slandered her
name all the way to Washington and even to England.
Sally Hemmings did have the best money maker and it made my daughters jealous. Down at the main
road she set up a kind of a lemonade stand, or mint julep stand depending
on what was in season. You could have your lemonade straight up and the
women could get it with actual lemonade and rum instead of whisky while
the children just got lemonade straight.
You might take
the preacher on a buggy ride in the country and stop at Sally Hemming's
refreshment stand. There you would order mint juleps all around and the
men would end up with whisky straight or diluted, the women would get
a rum drink while the children and preacher would get straight juice.
You learned the code the first time you came and it was a simple combination
of right and left eye winks you made while ordering. Those winks told Sally what
to add or leave out of each drink. You could get pretty tipsy and the
preacher would never be the wiser.
This was the
only place within about 50 miles that a woman could get a drink at in
a healthy environment
Sally had 12
mixed drinks once, I remember. There was a cherry cordial available in
all seasons. There was an almond drink, or maybe it was hazelnut drink.
You could get any of the drinks with a nut liquor added. There was a drink
made with rum, milk and a touch of cinnamon. It was quite popular. There
were four drinks total that used milk or cream. The blacks had learned to make
a lot of different kinds of alcohol. They had about ten times the resources
available than whites who were pretty much stuck on whisky. She made corn, potato
(vodka) and about four other types of alcohol.
There was one drink called the
'puritan' and the amount of alcohol in that one speaks for itself. She
had everything going except those little umbrella's.
Her name was
known for over a hundred miles around. In summers there was a line for
the 8 tables. The tavern owners in the area were very jealous, envious and so angry
that they started and maintained all the rumors about us being lovers.
Which was untrue. Here is what happened. The Federalist's would go looking for dirt on me so they would
of course go to the nearby taverns and get told the rumors as fact. They would go to two or
three taverns and hear the same rumor every time and logically that would be enough
to convince them that the rumors were true.
She was the
wealthiest self made woman in the state of Virginia if I recall correctly.
This was during the time that Monticello was a money making enterprise.
She made more money than I did. For two years (and they were about three
years apart) her net worth was actually more than my net worth.
There are probably
100's of pounds of pottery shards and trinkets that fell out of the pockets
of half drunks still there just waiting in the dirt for an archeologist. In case someone
wants to get their knees muddy this is a very hot tip.
lady had a shop in Charlottesville where she sold hats that others in Monticello made for her. From mid January until planting there was nothing to do
in Monticello so everyone sat around and looked at each other for about
three months or made hats.
the blacks at Monticello
After the work
was done for the day the field hands were free until the next mornings
work. The house workers often had a split shift but they all had at least
four hours free daily (not counting sleep time). Sally Hemmings went somewhere
often in the late afternoons after 3 PM but it wasn't my business.
How did we handle it when a black asked for their freedom?
One method was
the following. What I would do is make an exchange with a friend. When
blacks were traded often money would be added to offset the difference
in value. So I exchanged my black and some money for a black from a friend
or relative. Then after a few months the friend or relative would free
the black person and no one would associate the freeing of that black
with Thomas Jefferson.
Then I would
sell the black man I took in trade back to my friend or relative for the
money which I had in essence loaned him for two months. It was almost legal.
(I think there was a very small sales tax that the other man didn't pay
which would have exposed this maneuver if it had been paid). Usually it
was one of my wife's blacks and that made it even safer for the soon to
be freed man.
The living was easy on Monticello so there were only 20-50
blacks that we gave freedom to by using variations on this method and several
others. We had to change the details of the actual process numerous times
so that others didn't catch on to us. My memory of the actual
details of each one of the release processes has gotten more than a little bit confused
after 200 years.
Because of this
policy I think only two men ran away. One of these men was one
that we only took temporarily in trade while one of our blacks was going
through the process. He was never told his role to keep him legally clear
of involvement in the minor tax fraud.
As an additional
safety precaution my younger daughter was given the Monticello black man
as a 'gift' the year before so her name appeared on the sale/trade agreement.
That distanced the sale completely away from me. So it was my daughter's
deal. She was also technically the owner of the man we took in trade.
considered a mans institution except with widows and spinsters so mostly
men owned the blacks and almost never did a daughter. Also it was in the
autumn so there was little work to do so the man only did odd jobs and
the rest of the time he just sat around wondering why my daughter owned him.
One day she
gave him an order, and only stated: 'I want you to gather collard greens
to boil for dinner and also any mushrooms that you come across to boil
with them. However he heard her say this: 'Gather collard greens
and mushroom to boil you with'. He misunderstood her grammar, grabbed
one of our top horses and ended up in Maine. He rode almost 400 miles
north and almost ran out of roads before a nice free black couple could
explain to him that Thomas Jefferson, the ex-Governor of Virginia, never
ate people for dinner.
When he ran
I had to file a loss statement and several other documents and I recall
it had to be within a few days and in Richmond the capital. It took me
a day and a half and I wondered all the way there and while I was there
and all the way back what I was doing that might have caused him to run
away. I felt guilt laden until he sent a message by way of the lady who
wrote me a letter in which she included the reason he had run away and
also that he wanted to return.
I sent boat
fare but the stage fare from the port to Monticello was included in the promotional
deal as I recall. (It was a great deal as it was a promotion for a new
route running up and down the coast using very fast cutters. It was almost
free in fact but never mind, I am certain the promotional special is no longer available.)
He had to leave
the horse behind though. I could not figure out why I was getting so many
requests for the exact time he ran away. Normally you just have to send
one set of papers and he gets escorted back. However, since he was volunteering
on his own to come back I could not figure out why there were so many
The truth was
that it turned out to be a world record time for the horse race on the same
roads that they held in the spring.
They had long
distance horse races and he had beaten the record of a race that went north
and had done so by a half a day. Also he had gone over 40 miles in the wrong
direction and had to back track yet he had done it in a little over three
days. He ran next to the horse for an hour and then rode for two and then
repeated the pattern for 400 miles. He even took a break to let my stallion
mate with a lonely mare. He knew all the grasses and which ones would
nourish the most and which grasses could be digested easier. By the time
his race was over the horse was twice as healthy as when he started.
he took was the main backup for our breeding stallion in case he had a
tragic accident trying to jump a fence that was too high and not quite
make it. However we never needed the stallion he took and so to me the
horse was just another horse.
The horse was
sold at an auction up north and we made a good profit.
He said he came
from a tribe of messengers. They ran messages from the kings on the coast
inland so they were born runners like many of the todays Kenyan's and that is
the area he came from. He told us that he learned to say one thing in
15 different African languages. It was: 'If you kill me then my king will come
with 500 warriors and kill everyone.'
Then as time
went by the Kings got horses and so his tribe of messengers took care of them as
well as rode them. That is why he knew so much about horses and how
to run with them to get as far from that blood thirsty daughter of Jefferson
in as short a time as possible.
had been suspicious of these deals we made where we always came up short
a black person but when this guy took off it proved once and for all that
we were being taken unfair advantage of by even our own relatives.
man was then put in charge of all of our co-conspirators
and especially this one were dyed in the wool abolitionist's so I wondered
if maybe what she says that she told the man was actually the truth. My
suspicious nature tends to believe that maybe she actually told the man
who ran exactly what he claims he heard. She was as good a logician and
tactician as George Washington (although not nearly as good a liar) but
I wouldn't have put it past her to pull something like that on dear old
One method we
used meant the person had to lose about 40 pounds over a few months time.
We would bring in white doctors to diagnose them and they would take something
that would make them vomit, it worked best if it was on the doctors. As
they lost weight over a few months they would rub chalk mixed with lemon
into their skin. It made their skin granulate as well as create a distinctive
pallor that was identified directly as only one disease. Maybe TB. After
losing most all the flesh from their bones the doctors would agree the
best thing was to send them off to a relative or friend to die. Of course
even the most conservative slave owner set a slave free right before he
died so I could then set him free without making the slave owners suspicious
and then a friend would take him to another state and he was free. Etc.
died of childhood illnesses
and the Jefferson's blacks seemed to have real problem's with that.
About 90% appeared to have died this way.
There was a
time there that officially there was only one black child named Matthew
but I had to be careful since if I yelled out the name 'Matthew' three would
come running up and the parents would hold a few other Matthews back. (I
think it was Matthew and I think another name we often used was John.)
With about 100
black ladies to take care of infants, when the neighbors sent their own
blacks to spy on ours they would be seen walking up the hill to visit.
One of the blacks would yell out 'Mary's coming up the hill' and there would
be a mad shuffle as about 20 babies got swapped around until they were
all with women that Mary didn't know.
might look out the door at the visitor only 25 feet away and say 'No,
that's not Mary, that Lucy' and the 20 babies would almost fly through
the air to women that Lucy didn't know. In several of these mad dashes
a young woman had to tell the visitor that she had triplets when she ended
up with three babies in her arms. These children were later said to be
nephews and nieces of free black relatives (often that had died) which
my blacks were taking care of or had adopted so the children were free from
the older black women at Monticello told me what she remembered about
Africa. It was that everything she owned was the property of the chief
and she could never leave so she said she was in effect a slave but the
word that meant slave as well as slavery were not even a part of their
language. She also had to do whatever the chief said like build huts,
grind his grain, which they had to gather for him as well as for themselves.
It was the custom
in her nomadic tribe to sell daughters to other tribes for wives. They
were not a war like tribe and since men could have multiple wives girls
were in short supply. If she was sold as a wife to another tribe the chief would
arrange it and take some of the proceeds. Her mother or father would not
even be asked which is what happened with her sister and neither was she
asked to approve of the husband. One girl was asked and when she said
no about marrying the son of another chief her chief stopped asking the
girls and just sold them from then on.
with a fervor of being sold as a wife to one tribe that chewed a drug that
made them angry. These men had killed so many of their wives and each
others wives that they had to buy new wives often. (Maybe that is the
drug Khat or even coffee which grows wild there too.)
Her tribe was
from south of Sudan but since they were nomadic one time they went north
to the Sudan which was depopulated but they didn't know why.
She had a pet
goat when she was a girl and first one of the chief's wives wanted a third
child and so she got the chief to decree that the goat was to donate blood
for his wife to drink so she would get pregnant. He told the girl that
a cup every week would not harm her goat.
He had the shaman
purify the goat since the girl had made it impure and that made her feel
bad that she was not pure. Then after the wife took blood all the other
12 wives wanted to get pregnant too. They bleed
the goat until it had to lay down and then they bled it until it died
in her arms. So she didn't like the chief.
Then the Moslem
teachers came and taught them fairness and reprimanded the chief and so
she liked the Moslems, only for that reason. Then two years later the
Moslem slavers came and they said prayers as they chained up the villagers
and took them off. They found out through experience why that area of
the Sudan was depopulated.
And that she
told me is how she ended up in the American colonies in the 1750's.
*Of all the
horrors done to freed blacks the most irreprehensible was this. Thieves
would often torture a freed black to find where the valuables were stored
in their former masters home, such as the silverware. Then they would
have a small black boy run into the house to the silverware or other valuables,
grab them and run back out to a waiting buggy for their escape. (A light
buggy drawn by horses was always faster than the same horses with men
on their backs.) This happened not too far over the river in West Virginia.
They only got about five pounds of silver. The villains then just killed
the two blacks so they would not talk. It sickened me when I heard it and it bothers me to this day.
When they caught the two men, one escaped and the other man they could
only only prosecute for the theft since there was no law against killing
involving murdered free blacks happened in Maryland. I think it involved
a bank fraud.
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